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History - Monuments


Important Chronologies

4th  millennium B.C.
Neolithic Settlements
3rd  millennium B.C.  
Cycladic Period. Naxos is one of the most important centers, of the Cycladic Civilizations, that in our days is   considered as the oldest civilization in Europe. Creations of that Period is the Cycladic figurines
2nd millennium B.C.   
Mycenaean Period. Naxos is the “bridge” for the Mycenaean to the East.
8th -6th century B.C.
A wealthy society dominates. Participate to colonization from Naxos to Sicily (734 π. Χ.).  Monumental and famous offerings by people from Naxos, as the Sphinx at Delphi, The Lions at Delos, testify the development of Naxos and the blossom of Plastic Art  at the island
480 B.C. 
People from Naxos participate in the naval battle at Salamina, by the side of Athens, against Perses(Iranians).
41 B.C.   Naxos.A Latin Province
4th century A.C. -1207
Byzantine Period.
1207–1566 
Latin Domination
1566–1821    Ottoman Domination
May 6, 1821   
Declaration of Revolution in Naxos.
February 3, 1830 
 Naxos, and the rest of Cyclades, it is included in the newly established Greek State.

 

The importance of Naxos has been not only primary , in the long historical period, but also modulus in the history, not only of  Cycladic but also of  the wider Greek Territory. Naxos was always famous for the vast quantity of exported marbles,the emery,the many sources,the full of trees gardens,  the beauty of the plains,the olive groves, the orange groves, the  lemon groves, the citrons, the vines and the famous wine, the livestock-farming and cheeses but also for salt! At the same time, because the sea "isolates", the island remained genuine, unusual, different and self-sufficient. Pindaros calls Naxos "liparan" and Herodotus affirms that “Naxos efdaimoni ton nison proefere” that is to say “Naxos, outclassed more blessed than the other islands”. Archilohos of Paros compared the wine of Naxos with the nectar that gods drink.

God Dionysus is mainly connected with Naxos, who incarnated the beneficial forces of nature. He was born and raised in Naxos where he married Ariadne afterwards her abandonment by Thiseas. Her marriage with the god and her death, that foreboded resurrection, were celebrated intensely on the island because it was associated with the maturation and the regeneration of Nature.

Naxos inhabited in the 4th millennium B.C. hitherto constantly. The study of toponym certifies that Naxos  was never depopulated by the residents, unlike the other islands in Aegean Sea. This fit for all the areas of the island, for coasts and for mountains and  valleys. Ffrom the ancient years until today, live basically the same people, who obviously regroup, having the power to assimilate foreigners, that occasionally, peacefully or by force of arms set in the island. The island has always had an organisation, concerned with the conditions of production and reproduction of life.

It is worth remembering names of some sites which constitute an undeniable evidence for settlements or for adorations of heroes or gods that could not be there today; if the island was depopulated, residents were lost, and other replaced them at a particular point of time.
The highest peak of Naxos is named Myti(nose) of Za, that is to say, bears the name of the father of gods and humans for ancients, and it would have, perhaps, the same name in the antiquity, because there  worshiped Zeus at the time . Also, that is shown by an inscription on a marble crude volume in the path leading to the top of the mountain"Zeus Milosios - the protector of sheep". The inscription defines the limits of the dedicated temenos to the great god.

In the northeast edge of the island, a cove is named Apollonas and seems that was named this way in the ancient times, because there was found an inscription delimiting a temple dedicated to the god of light. Apollo was related particularly with Naxos and was worshiped as Tragos, Anthokomis or Poimnios.

Southeast is situated Panermos, a reported port in an ancient inscription with the same article and almost  the same type, "Panormos". Two seaside locations are named Orkos and also Orkos Sand, because were used as "olkos" (water chutes) in the antiquity, namely as places suitable for the hauling up of boats. The village Melanes is reported in an ancient inscription as "Melan" and the villages Halkei and Keramei in the ancient years should be workshops for copper’s craftsman and ceramists. Arsos at Aperathou, is “alson”, that is to say woody temple, dedicated to deities or nymphs. Again at Aperathou, Dimos, is a place that its name testifies the existence of an appreciable settlement in the antiquity, and Afikli, shows a holy place, dedicated to the hero Ifiklea, uterine brother of Hercules. Finally, the name of the village Skado, relates with “ishades”, figs, so much tasty for ancient people.

Thracians considered to be the first inhabitants of Naxos.  Voutis, the son of Voreas, inhabited at first,. While he was looking to find women for his companions, arrived in Thessaly, where he chased Vakhes and between other women he stole Koronida and Ifimdeia and brought them to Naxos. According to tradition, Thracians dominated in the island for two hundred years. Carians succeeded them. They came from Asia Minor headed by Naxos who imposed his name to the island.

Plastic art and, presumably, architecture set up in Naxos.
In the linguistic styles of  the island, survived and are used characters from the years of Homer.
Byzantium  did not end with the fall of Constantinople in 1204 by the armies of the Forth Crusade, in Naxos, neither with the conquest of Cyclades, in 1207, by the Venetian Mark Sanoudos or the establishment of the Latin Hegemony, with its capital Naxos. The residents, in this new colonial-style society, maintained “habits”, which emanated from the laws of Byzantine Empire, and evolved merging with the newcomers institutions from the West, in order to form the famous customary law of island. At the same time, through the ecclesiastical tradition, the inhabitants of the island continued the Byzantium.

In 1536-66 began the period of the Ottoman domination. However Turkish was not set in, except for a few, on the island: they were interested only in collecting taxes. But Latin Domination will keep up until the Greek Revolution of 1821.
One culture after the other. Each new culture, in its effort to prevail by dismantling the previous, used the same materials, borrowed elements and adopted attitudes. And thus each culture continues to exist until today. Naxos constitutes a concrete example.

4th  millennium.

The first settlements of Naxos were established in the 4th millennium B.C., in the Neolithic Age. Archaeological finds testifies for a developed society at the dues of the neolithic civilization.

Cycladic Age

The first big Era for Naxos was the Cycladic, in the 3rd millennium B.C.. Naxos presented a dense population that was spread in small settlements mainly to the east side of the island, where a dense network of small islands offered easy extension basis. A characteristic “polisma” (place of assembly) of the era was discovered in Korfari Amygdalies point in Panormos. In the locality, where today is located the city of Naxos, in Grotta, was discovered a great and developed settlement ,built in squares, with carefully built houses and rich Ceramics. The cemeteries of the Age are extended in the whole island. Masterpieces of art and technique from the second part of the 3rd millennium are found in almost all the graves. The simplicity in the form, the clean lines and the strict order constitute infrequent phenomenon, if not unique, in the prehistoric season.

In the 3rd millennium B.C. Naxos emerged as one of the most important centres of First Cycladic civilisation. Characteristic of the importance of the island to the blossoming of the Cycladic culture is the use, even conventional, of  toponyms from Naxos by the archaeologists  to identify elements of  that period. So we talk for the local civilization of "Grottas-Louros" of Naxos that characterizes with its name the Early Cycladic phase I (3200-2800 B.C.) and for  the figurines of “Louros style” from the cemetery Louros in the Sagkrios point. This fit to the case of the figurines of “Spedou style” from the homonym position in SE Naxos. Also, this fit to the figurines of “Apeiranthou style”, and even to the famous artist, creator of famous figurines, the “Artist of Goulandri Collection”, who "should was from Naxos". He could be a craftsman, it could have been an export trade of figurines, could...

The First Cycladic acropolis (citadel) in Korfari Amygdalies point and the unique “epikroustes” representations from Korfi at Aroni, in SE Naxos, compose together with all the other elements, the outstanding image of an important Aegean centre in the 3rd  millennium B.C..

Mycenaean - Geometrical - Archaic Ages

In the 2nd millennium the development of forces in the Aegean, first by  Crete and then by Mycenaean centres in mainly Greece had as a result the recession of autonomy of the unacquired Cycladic civilization. The population of Naxos shifted itself northwest. Thus we have the big Mycenaean city in Grotta that lived with continuous rebuilding of houses up to the First Geometrical Age (1000B.C.) as well as the big cemeteries at Aplomata point and at  Kamini point

Around the 7th B.C. century an oligarchic society  took shape, with many rich and powerful nobles, “paheis”(bold) who were living in the city, situated on the hill of the current Castle of Chora, or in various cities of the island. The population dealt mainly with agriculture, livestock but also with fishery, trade and arts. Naxos colonized Arkesini and perhaps Aigiali Amorgos and contracted close relations with Thira (Santorini). In 734 B.C. helped with a fleet the friendly to itself Halkida to send settlers in the West and in return gave name in one of the new colonies (Naxos Sicily). Continuous were  the fights against Miletus, the Eritrea and the Paros. During one of them, the big poet of Paros, Archilochos was killed.

The archaeological finds from the Mycenaean and the Geometrical Ages, especially in Ceramics, characterized by a high degree of aesthetics, but Naxos  became again a pioneer in cultural creation, at the Archaic Age, namely the 7th and 6th B.C. century.
For this season "speak out" at a unique way, the hyperphysical in size masculine naked statues and the dressed feminine ones from Naxos. Kouros(young man’s statue), is lying, unfinished, in the ancient quarries, at Melanes and Apollonas. Technical reasons or conditions of life, as the death of customer or political events, stood the causes for their abandonment. A famous statue of the Age is Artemis of the National Museum of Athens, that was dedicated to Delos by Nikandris-a woman from a rich family of Naxos (650 B.C.).
The Sphinx of Delphi, the eminent Leontes of Delos, the House of Naxos in Delos and generally a lot of oblations by people from Naxos in Delos and in other famous shrines, witness the development, the wealth, the power of the society of Naxos and particularly the sovereignty and the economic exploitation of the big Ionic religious centre of Delos. Perhaps some kind of "Apollo policy " had developed.
The great Plastic (Sculptural, Ceramics…) that  born in Greece at the Archaic Age, displayd in Naxos all the elements epoch-making, for first time. This fact, coupled with the development of Plastic (figurines) in the 3rd millennium B.C. led to believe that in Naxos "was given birth" to Plastic. The abundance of marble on the island contributed undoubtedly to this growth. Emery, an exclusive product of Naxos, was used for the final smoothing of the works.

The artisans from Naxos were coveted and appeared to be so rich, so as to dedicate themselves big and certainly very expensive pieces of art to gods. Ancient information is reported in pioneer families of craftsmen of marble, as the family of Vuzi, whose signature exists on marble tiles of Acropolis in Athens.

The contribution of Naxos to the creation of the epoch-making form of Greek architecture and particularly to the marble Ionic Order was decisive. In the temple of Yria we can follow step by step, in the same place, one layer after another, the path from a single- room temple (800B.C. roughly) made from timber and plinths/ bricks, up to the ekatompedo (100 feet long) archaic temple, in Ionic Order, that allocates “adyto”(sanctuary( (space for mystic ceremonies)), marble "prostasi" (colonnade that make monumental the entry), marble altar and marble colonnades internally.

In Gyroyla in Sagkri, the full-marble temple of Apollo and Demeter is archaic temple of “Telestirio” style, that is to say, dedicated to mystic ceremonies. It is a unique, well saved example of “Telestirio”. It belongs to Lygdami Era (530 B.C. roughly) tyrant of Naxos, as the great temple of Apollo, in the islet of Palaces, in the port of Chora.
There were,however, and political sways. On the occasion of the offence of noble Telestagora, from other similar, burst out the malaise of the peole against “Paheis”. Another noble, Lygdamis used the disturbances and imposed tyranny and prevailed , with the help of his friend Peisistratos, around in 540 B.C.. Afterwards the inversion of tyrant by Lacedaemonioi (524 p. X.), after a short oligarchy, the democracy of Naxos repelled 506 p. X. the four-month siege of tyrant of Militos Aristagora.
   

Classic Age and the end of ancient world.

In 490 B.C. the residents of Naxos faced the attack of Persians in a passive way. Most of them fled to the mountains and the ones remained in the city were captured and became slaves. The city was destroyed and temples were burned. In the naval battle of Salamis people from Naxos defected from Persians and fight on the side of Athens. Many inhabitants of Naxos fought at Plataea and the name of the island was in the honorary list of tripodos at Delphi and in the base of statue of Zeus at Olympia. Actually however Naxos never dominated again after this destruction. The island passed under the hegemony of Athens. Afterwards the fall of Athenian hegemony it passed under the hegemony of Lacedaemonians. In the 4th B.C. century Athenians and Lacedaemonians clashed for Naxos. Participating in the "public of islands"the island passed from the influence of Ptolemaists of Egypt under the Macedonian and afterwards under the influence of Rhodes. Afterwards 41 B.C. came under the Roman Empire, in the Roman Province of islands located in Rhodes. Often the Roman used the island as a place of exile. Ecclesiastically, Naxos came under the church of Rhodes at the first Christian years.

Byzantine Period (Eastern Roman Empire).

Many researchers accept the aspect that the centre in the Byzantine years was located in Tragaia point - Apano Castle and in the wider region of Sagkri - Castle of Apaliro up to the bay of Agiasos. The plain of Sagkri with the too many small but important churches have been characterized as a small Mystras. The study of inscriptions showed that Naxos was the seat of “tourmarchi” called Nikitas, before 1080, that is to say, constituted a tourma for protospatharios Ioannis. In 1083 became seat of Ecclesiastic Eparch.   
 
In 727 the “thematic” fleet of Hellenic and Cycladic islands rose up against Emperor Leo III of Isavros and sailed to Reigning (Constantinople), but the “Liquid Fire” destroyed the Hellenic and Cycladic fleet. Researchers dispute for the reasons of this revolt. But the participation of Cyclades in the martial confrontation with the emperor suggests an important administrative and economic substance.
In dues of the 7th  and in begin of the 8th century was built the Castle of Apaliro which controlled not only the farmland of the island, but also the marine region between Naxos, Paros and Ios, which probably was in the sea-way of the journey from Crete to Constantinople. The building of the castle is connected with the difficult ages of the first Arabic raids and fits in the broader context of government concern for defensive reinforcement of the islands.

However, Naxos appear to begin to acquire a prominent position in the administration of the Empire, that it was accompanied by economic blossoming, the so-called "Dark Ages" of Byzantium (7th-9th century), with the connection of the island with the Iconoclasm. This link reflects an administrative reformation of the island,probably, as has happened also in other provinces of empire, as a part of reforms of Isavron. This reformation brought realignments in the local society with the creation of new government services and the partial set in of foreigner military population: it is the cultivators-soldier, the “thematic” army.

The monuments of Naxos, mutatis mutandis, shows demographic boom during the 8th and 9th century, which was obviously accompanied also by various human activities in the sphere of  local but, probably, and the wider production and economy.
Almost five hundred churches, in all styles and types and monasteries with fortress character, testify that in this island, that had been a  pioneer in the sculpturing of marble but also in formation of cultures such as the Cycladic, still existed people in the Byzantine years, who were by the firsts that tried new ways in architecture, hagiography  in their efforts to express the inner self .
The island can show an own architectural physiognomy: there are ancient temples changed into palaiochristian royals, as Saint Ioannis in Gyroyla Sagkriou. There are temples in which are distinguished many building phases, beginning from the first Christian centuries,as in Virgin Mary Protothrono in Halkei village ,the Virgin Mary Drosiani in Moni village , the Fotodoti Christos in Danako village. There are palaiochristian royals with synthrono, as Virgin Mary  Protothronos, which is a very important three-niche temple, Virgin Mary Drosiani, cruciform "eggegrammenos"(escribed) temples, as Saint Mamas at Potamia,  Saint Georgios Diasoritis in Tragaia, the St. Apostles in Metohi, Virgin Mary Protothronos, as took shape in the middle Byzantine years and it is maintained thus up today, with several additions of course.

Even, temples of type of free cross, as the Virgin Mary Kaloritissa or Kaloreitsa, Virgin Mary in the Archato, the Virgin Mary Daminiotissa, arch-roofed royal, one aisle "troulaies"(cupola) royal, double-niche temples.
In Naxos exists a chronologically indecomposable unity of monuments from the 7th  till the 14th  century not only from an architectural aspect but also from the aspect of painting decor. One of the most important monuments, not only in Greece but also in SE Europe generally, is the Virgin Mary Drosiani in Moni , in which the older layer of murals is dated the 7th  century and even more older are considered Saint Georgjos in Melanes and Fotodotis Christos in Danako. Also, there are abstract churches of the 9th century, St. Kyriaki in Aperathou, Saint Artemios in Sagkri, Saint Ioannis in Adisarou. The three churches, along with the abstract layers of murals of other churches, constitute, probably, the bigger total of abstract painting in Greece. It was realised that the number of the mural monuments, more than 100, in Naxos, is much bigger than the one in all the other Cyclades but also that is ultimately the primary in Greece.

Unique sets of murals are situated in Virgin Mary  Drosiani, from the palaiochristian years, in  Virgin Mary Protothronos, where the murals/frescoes are saved into five layers, palaiochristian, iconoclastic, two of the 11th century and one of the 13th century. Finally, in the church of  Saint Georgios Diasoriti, is one of the most important sets of murals of the 11th century, in the entire Aegean. The Drosiani rescues the most complete iconographic program, at the time. Unique representations of Virgin Mary Nikopoios and Christ are depicted in the cupola in two “stitharia”(parapets), namely twices in bust. The Virgin Mary Nikopios is a Virgin Mary Vrefokratousa( baby-Christ holder), who holds in each hand a disk, in which Christ is depicted. The double depiction of Christ in the cupola constitutes a unique sample from the pre-iconoclastic Age. In the one parapet the Christ has a very short beard and keeps a Gospel, in the other he has beard and keeps “eilito”(blind). Probably by the two different depictions is showed the two natures of Christ, the divine and human.

This monument constitutes the more valid historical testimony that Naxos possessed in the Byzantine years a distinguished part in administrative, ecclesiastical, economic and artistic level between the islands of south Aegean. And because the "Byzantium" does not finish with the fall of Constantinople  in 1204 or in 1453, but "is continued" everywhere in the Greek region despite the conquests, also are considerable in Naxos the post- Byzantine monuments. However, the island saw Geneva and Venice corrugating the sea in the fight for hegemony, felt the expansionism of Turks, the commercial competition of forces, the piracy, and felt in the body what means to be claimed of both, the Christendom and the Islam. The island felt the betrayal, the pillage, the implacable desolation; it saw the money, the merchandises, and people frequently change hands. Repeatedly the wine-cellars, the deposits of oil were knocked off and the residents were found between violence and injustice many times.


Latin Domination.

In 1207 the Venetian Marcos Sanoudos occupied Naxos and Andros and established the hegemony that  remained known in history as Duchy of Aegean Sea with its capital Naxos. Then were conquered also other islands, except Tinos and Mykonos that constituted a separate hegemony under Ghisi. Even if Sanoudos family was Venetians, they recognized as dominator the Latin Emperor of Constantinople and not Venice, against which they kept an independent policy, as long as this was allowed by the geopolitical conditions at the time. Thus, the frictions with Venice became inevitable and with the passing of time the Latin hegemony of Cyclades became a protectorate of Venice.

The local tradition "wants" M. Sanoudos to share the island to nobles in fiefs and to impose a feudal system, similar to the western models. In fact, what we know about the founder of the hegemony is accrued by a treaty which he contracted with the duke of Crete, when he was called there in order to repress the revolt of Greek sovereigns. The Venetians defaulted or were unwilling to fulfil the terms of the agreement, with result M. Sanoudos to join forces with Greek portion sovereigns and to occupy the entire island. Reinforcements that were sent by Venice forced him to withdraw and one of the terms of the treaty was to take with him 20 from the Greek sovereigns ((young nobles that dominated in Crete from the years of Byzantium) while he acquired feudal rights in territories of the island. He set out against the empire of Nice in his effort to deter attack of Byzantines against his possessions. He was captured by the emperor Theodore Laskaris, who was charmed by his personality and let him free to return in his possessions, giving his as a spouse one princess from his family. In 1227, from the Venice henceforth, where he had retired a little before his death in 1228, he granted the Monastery of Fotodoti Christ in the battalion of Black Monks. On his days, at all probability, was established a religious organisation, the "Fraternal Order of Christ Holy Body ", in 1226, from not clerics Catholic in order to manage the donations that was made to the newly established catholic church.

The hegemony of Sanoudos was a tempestuous period after they were forced in permanent combat operations or in diplomatic handlings, in order to face their neighbours Ghisi, the pirates or the Byzantine fleet of emperor Vatatzi of Nice that never resigned from their claims on the Cyclades islands, and finally the interventions of Venice.
The dynasty of Sanoudos (includes seven sovereigns), terminated in 1383 when the friendly to Venice sovereign of Milos Frantzeskos Krispos (he had married a sovereign from the house of Sanoudos, named Maria) murdered the last duke of Naxos, son of duke Fiorentsa Sanoudos, Nikolas Dalle Carceri, during hunting just outside the village Melanes and undertook the hegemony of duchy. Krispos (12 total) took hegemony up to 1566, when the duchy was occupied by the Turkish First Admiral Hairentin Barbarossa.

Someone may get an idea for the feudal society of islands, from the letters of thedukes that were saved up to our days. For the islands the "Assizes of Romania" was the feudal code, reformed according to habits of Naxos. Duke was the head of  the social hierarchy, peer in the hegemony of Achaia, which was recognized as suzerain. In command, the duke had coadjutant dignitaries as were the "observer", "bailos", and "praxikos of the duke" while existed also a “captain” of castle of Naxos, as well as the rank "apanokynigaris".

Taxes and the dues do not appear to be heavy/serious.  A bigarade at Christmas time or a pullet was the usual offer to “afthenti” formal recognition to feudal dependence. The Byzantine landed tax, “akrostihon” was still in use. There  was the "detzima of the fief", that is to say “dekati” (10% of the total income/products), “entritia”, the “entritemena” fields, the “free” ones, that is to say the ones which the cultivators had been exempted from the obligation to attribute the “entritia” in landowner, the “tasa”, the “kountouvernia”, that is to say landowner it granted property in cultivator-“kopiasti” as “misiariko”(half), the “kalathatiko”, equivalent with the Byzantine “kaniski”. Finally, the “turkoteli”, tax that was paid to Turks pirates by the duke and was levied by his tributary villagers-“kopiastes”. From the period of Latin Domination is emanated a verb characteristic: “galdero” that it means: I am distributed, I dominate, I exploit because of course the effendi (master) distributed, dominated, exploited!

On the middle of the 16th century, a new "immigratory" current came to submerge the island. Barozzi, Grimaldi, Tzioustiniani, Kokki, Della-Rokka, De Modena, etc invested by buying land or acquiring land by marriage and created big properties. Classic case constitutes the "place of Filotiou'". They had maintained the feudal arrangement by intensifying the work of serfs residents of island. The stone imposing towers "speak" so far for the feudal system. For a period there were “effendis” and “effendi places”, that is to say landholders (places) in which were attributed rights, “aspra”, “grosia”, “duchies”, “rialia”, “tzekinia” and for the local, the villagers, a set of obligations, from taxes that had always relation with land that they cultivated and with the animals that grazed in the “paskoula”-pasture lands.


Ottoman domination.

However Turks did not colonize Naxos and the other Cyclades. Few settled down in the islands, because of the fear of pirates, and too few residents accepted Islam. The Sultan Selim II (1524-1574) granted the oldest and most beautiful of all the Latin states of East to the encouraged by hm Josif Nazi, a jew adventurer, banker, that came from Portuguese jews, had adhered in the Christianity and had taken the Portuguese name Joao Miquez. The Jew Duke of Naxos, never visit his duchy in the thirteen years of belonging. He placed in his place a man of confidence, Frantzesko Koronello to collect the taxes from which he had need and generally to manage the islands which were granted to him by his friend Selim II. Josif Nazi maintained the old customs and  laws of Latin. With the new Sultan Mourat III (1574-1595) his force run down and finally died by stoning in 1579. In 1580 a committee of Christians from the islands, was presented in the Portal and took from Mourat III exceptionally favourable privileges. The cephalic tax remained in his old form.

Their churches remained free and could be built as  wanted. The old laws and the customs remained, they could wear their local clothes and silk, the wine and the foods would be exempted from every tax on the islands. These privileges were ratified by Ibraim (1640-1648) sixty years later and formed the "constitutive" map of Cyclades in the years of Ottoman domination. It began the era of sponsion for the East, under the hegemonic influence of France. However in the old taxes that continued being in effect were added new ones overloading more the residents of island: the “haratzi”, the “cephalic tax”, the “tzeremes”, “prostimo”, the “moukatas” payment in money of “dekati”(ten per cent of) fruits of the earth, the “giemekliki”, tax in kapoudan for all the expenses of Turkish fleet during the stay in the Cyclades. From the Ottoman domination as we mark the verb “diagoumizo” that it means I seize, I despoil, I loot!


The Independence.

People from Naxos rose in insurrection many times against the conquerors, Latin and Turks. In 1595 became a bold conspiratorial movement of representatives of fifteen islands in Naxos that aimed at the catalysis of Turkish Empire.  They rose against Franks in 1563, in 1643, in 1670 and 1681. More important are the revolts of the 18th century with protagonists the members of family of Citizens and with centre the tower of Marco Politi at Akadimous point, in the basin of Tragaia.

The head of "public of villages" Markakis Politis became the bugbear of Latin, fighting against them from 1770 up to 1802 and an idol of Greeks. He roused the farmers of Drimalia, he used Turks in his fight against the Barozzi, with who he went into partnership against the Latin. He contributed to the operation of Faculty of Ag. Georgios of Grotta and the reconstruction of Ag. Artemios, a church situated in the valley of village Kinidaros. He was characterized "anastitor of Naxos (reanimated) " and “promahos” of the cutting off feudal" in the island. The Franks calumniated him, run after him, confiscated his fortune, and they accomplished him to exile in Mitilini where he was drowned with rope on 25 March 1802, with all order of Houssein. The son of Markopoliti, Michalakis, continued the work of his father, recovered the fatherly fortune, and he was imposed as "proestos"(president) and head of Public of Villages and fought against the Franks and the Turks. In the dues 1821 Alexandros Ypsilantis had sent people in the Cyclades with revolutionary proclamations. In December 1820 were put under oath the first Filikoi(Friends) in Naxos, between them and t Markopolitis and declared the Revolution on 6 May 1821.

Historical Club of Naxos “ARSOS” – P. FLEA

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